〈豳風.東山〉「伊威在室」及「熠燿宵行」

林 葉連

摘要


《詩經.豳風.東山》:「果臝之實,亦施于宇。伊威在室,蠨蛸在戶;町畽鹿場,熠燿宵行。不可畏也,伊可懷也。」其中「伊威」一詞的注解,向來以《爾雅》及《毛傳》所說的「委黍」、「鼠婦」之說最被採行。但核諸實際生物,那是一般人不容易看到的昆蟲。若以生物的習性來考查,也會發覺「鼠婦」說與詩意扞格不入;因此,本篇擬對「伊威」的定義重新檢討,探究牠到底是目前所見何種昆蟲?至於「熠燿宵行」一詞也頗有爭議,本篇將它分做「熠燿」、「宵行」分別加以提討,試圖為詩義找到比較可信的注解。

關鍵詞:伊威、熠燿、鼠婦、委黍、宵行

The poem “Pin-fong Tung shan” in Shijing wrote: “the tendril of the plant climbs to the roof。伊威在室,The long foot spider is hung in the room。Covered
with footprints of deer around the house, the home has turned into wild deer's field. 熠燿宵行,This kind of scene does not make people feel terrible, make people feel very warm instead. ” In this section of contents, three words such as ' 伊威 ' ' 熠燿 ' ' 宵行 ',etc., always the scholar has not had unified note. Although Maogong explanation of the "伊威" translated into "黍婦," but the "黍婦" is not a common insect. Therefore, the reader can not apt to enjoy the meaning of this sentence. So, this paper intends to review the ancients for the "伊威, 熠燿, 宵行," the three words annotation, to allow readers to understand the "伊威" is the modern people can see what kind of insect? Also, "熠燿, 宵行" two words what is the correct interpretation. After this paper discussed hope readers of this poem have a correct understanding, and feel it is very close to the reality of life.

Keywords : cockroach, phosphorescent light


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